Static positioning is the default positioning model for elements. They are displayed in the page where they rendered as part of normal HTML flow
Relative positioning allows you to specify a specific offset (left, top etc) which is relative to the element's normal position in HTML flow.
Fixed position always stays in the same place even if the page is scrolled.
Absolute position is where you specify the exact location of the next relatively positioned element further up the element tree
Sticky is a hybrid relative and fixed positioning. Treated as a relative position until it crosses a specified threshold, at which point it is treated as fixed positioned.